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Waterfalls and cold springs upstream with cool and refreshing water downstream


Geographical location

The Zhonggang River is one of the main rivers within Miaoli County and it is located between Touchien River and Houlong River.  It starts from Luchang Mountain in the Mount Shue mountain range.  The river is 54 km long and runs into a basin which has an area of 445.5 km2.  There are four major rivers that flow into Zhonggang River from Mount Chien, Nanjuang and Sanwan areas, namely Nangang, Tungho, Nanho and Emei rivers.  The Zhonggang River passes through the townships of Nanjuan, Sanwan, Beipu, Emei, Toufen, Zhunan and Tzauchiau.


The formation of the land within the basin slants from south-east to north-west with hills and valleys spread throughout. Towards the top of the basin, lies the Tungho and Nanho rivers. These two rivers form a number of steep valleys as they cut their way through Mount Lu and Mount Pakua. The name changes to Nanjuang River where the two rivers converge in the Nanjuang area. It then flows to Mount E-gong-ji in the Sanwan area where it converges with Emei River and it is here where the river is referred to as Zhonggang River. Granite walls and deep pools can be seen all along the river.  The river widens downstream in the Zhunan and Toufen areas and the plains on either side form a gradient with average of 1:150.

Water Resources

The whole area has abundant rainfall, a yearly average of 1,650 mm, with uneven distribution.  Current water storage facilities are Jiantan reservoir, Dapu reservoir and Yonghoshan reservoir, which provide irrigation, public water supply and industrial water. Temporary weirs are built across the river and the irrigation area for this basin includes the following irrigation channels as: 10 from Nanjuang River, 8 from Zhonggang River, 5 from Emei River, 6 from Nangang River and the Dapu irrigation channels that is in the district. A total of 30 irrigation channels cover the irrigation area of 4,253 hectares.




Majestic mountains and spring water brings prosperity to the economy and culture of Miaoli

In ancient times, spring water from the mountains supplied farmers in the basin with irrigation water. After the Ming Dynasty, immigrants came to Taiwan and cultivated the wastelands and a small-scale irrigation channel was constructed for irrigation purposes. In 1765, the Longen irrigation channel was built followed by excavation of Fantzu, Tungshing, Neiwan and Nanlong irrigation channels that made the irrigation business more prosperous.  Furthermore, due to construction of the Jiantan reservoir in 1957, Dapu no. 2 reservoir in 1960 and Yonghoshan reservoir in 1984, the Toufen / Zhunan petrochemical area made rapid developments in the industrial and commercial fields.  The population increased rapidly and the area the most important cultural and economical development in Miaoli County.

"Zhonggang River -  Planning, Maintenance and Management

Building of the riverbanks for public safety as well as land recovery.







River training history

During the Japanese Occupation, the Hsinchu Prefecture Government drew plans on flood control for building the Zhonggang riverbanks but it was never completed due to the Second World War. After Taiwan was liberated, only a few sections of the riverbanks underwent construction.  Later, the flood control project became the nation's ten largest construction projects and work began on a much larger scale. An investigation in 1982 revealed that the existing construction for flood prevention contains 16,084 m of riverbanks and 2160 m along coastal lines. Materials used were mostly stones layered in concrete and slopes made with stone riprap sausage.

Principles of river training

The surrounding mountainous area towards the river's head and the banks towards river's mouth, are still untouched by man.  The Toufen and Zhunan Industrial area, which lie towards the river's mouth, are in higher flood risk zones and thus, the river administration is focused on shoring up the banks and putting flood control measures into place.  The Tuniu and Nangang rivers are used for managing water discharge after flooding.

Measures of river training

‧Due to the surrounding hills within the Zhonggang River basin, the areas  of flooding is limited, especially after the flood control constructions along the riverbanks. Most flood dischargs by river and thus flood control management needs to be carried out along the river with emphasis on building the riverbanks. 
‧Emei River: Enhance regional protection to the Nanjuang plains by building the riverbanks. The existing banks must be built and strengthened for prevention of flooding. Also, building of the embankment on higher land along coastal regions also needs to be considered and adequate management must be made in accordance with planned water channels and flood plains.

Operation of Water Drainage and Land Renovation

In order to compensate the land acquired for the maintainance of Fushin River, a set percentage was added to the published land value announced by Hsinchu County Government.  In addition, construction bonus of NT$1.2 million/hectare was issued. For compensation of constructions on the land will be separately evaluated by Hsinchu County Government.

Building of flood banks and embankments

Operation of Water Drainage and Land Renovation

Zhonggang river  Length planned37,039m, Length  completed 26,830m, Length to be built10,209m

Project Performances

‧Protection of life and property of residents along the river shore. 
‧Protection to the farms, roads, factories and companies. 
‧Improves and beautifies river landscape in harmony with neighboring areas for   tourism and leisure purposes. 
‧Improved development of agriculture along the shore and fruit farm, which further promotes tourism. 
‧Promotes value increase for the adjoining lands. 

Vision of water management

‧In addition to flood prevention, disaster prevention, water usage, beautification and leisure purposes, consideration is also given to restoration of biological diversity and the regeneration of the natural environment. This will help lessen the impact on the recovery of the ecosystem. 
‧The newly built park in Tzauchiau Township has added to the ecological habitat, providing an abundant diversity of red woods. 




The colorful ecological system comes from adequate protection with successful results


Zoological Resources

There are more than 19 species of fish, which include crossostoma lacustre, hemimyzon formosanum, varicorhinus barbatulus and candidia barbata as those species unique to Taiwan, with others such as perch and eel.  There are 4 species of shrimp and 4 species of crab.  There are 14 species of birds living in the upstream areas of the Tungho and Nanho rivers.  These include black-crowned night heron, striated heron, the common kingfisher, Megalaima oorti nuchalis Gould, white wagtail), gray wagtail and plumbeous water redstart.  The Miaoli county government has recently put protective measures in place for the preservation of resources for aquatic animals and plants in the Tungho and Nanho rivers.  Due to the prohibition of fishing, the river's natural ecosystem is expected to be restored in the next few years.

Plant Resources

The plains are mainly used for growing rice paddies.  Most of the hills' slopes are used for plants that don't require a lot of water such as tea, pears and citrus fruits. The mountain woods are dense and mainly consist of China firs, bamboos and Aluerites Fordii; as well as some fruit trees and plants that don't require a lot of water.  The deep narrow gorge in the upper area of the river is mostly covered with woody plants.

After being declared as a natureal park by the Zhunan Township Office, the mouth of Zhonggang River is now reserved for bird watching and is well protected.  The ecological resources are now abundant and provide an excellent environment for education and conservation.


Your support is needed to recover the vitality of the river.


Accomplishments and Results of Fengshan River Inspection:

‧Permit for plantation on public land in the river district: 114 cases, covering the area of 37.9192 hectares 
‧Handling of Illegal Practices: 12 cases up to the end of 2004. 
‧Inspection of Public Land in the River District: by the end of 2003, the inspection was completed, covering an area of 2,482 hectares. 
‧Survey of the River District: By the end of 2003, the survey was complete; the total length of the river was 26.75km. 
‧Patrolling and handling of illegal practices: 376 cases by April 2003. 


The Hakka villagers are very hospitable and you can experience their culture through the Saisiat Pas-taai Festival.

The Origin of the River's Name

Zhonggang (middle harbor) River is located between Mengjia Harbor and Lugang harbor.  The entrance to this river is where the people from Fujian province and Guangtung province in Mainland China landed when they migrated to Taiwan, populating and developing the basin through which the river flowed.  Early development was based on "Zonggang Society".  Due to soil deposits towards the river's mouth and the completion of the railway, the heart of commerce moved to an area north of the river (originally referred as the "triangular manor for Zhonggang district").  Due to its original location south of "Zhuchian", Hsinchu, and the "triangular manor for Zhonggang district" was renamed to Zhunana in 1920 but it was still referred to its old name "Zhonggang Society".

Ethnic communities

Many different people settled on the plains by the river.  Of these, Minnan people are the largest, in regards to population with the Hakka people being the second largest.  Most of the Hakka people live in the hilly upper areas of the river and in the mountain township of Nanjuang, mainly consist of Hakka aboriginals.  Most of the aboriginals are from the Saisiats tribe with a few from the Atayals.

Festival and ceremonies

The Shiangtian Lake is located near Tungho Village of Nanjuang Township, which is mainly inhabited by the Saisiat tribe.  There are two types of Pas-taai festivals.  The smaller festival occurs once every two years which the bigger one, once every ten years.  The festival is held around 15th October (according to the Chinese lunar calendar) for 4 days and 3 nights.  The main ceremony includes spiritual prayer, spiritual welcome, spiritual meeting and spiritual entertainment, presenting the history and meaning of a continuous culture.

To build a safe and perfect living space, as well as maintain and create a natural, diversified water environment.

The 2nd River Management Bureau, Water Resources Agency, MOEA (Ministry of Economic Affairs) is in charge of river training and coast protection for Taoyuan, Hsinchu County / City and Miaoli County . In the aspect of overall planning of river basin, our office puts focus on both training and management, employing ecological engineering that highly preserves the natural environment.  It is our goals to maintain "ecological rivers" and "sustaining coast, "so that mutual coexistence of man and nature can be ensured."

The divisions of the current organization include: Planning Division (in chang of planning of River training and drainage coast protection), Construction Division (maintain and manage the construction of central rivers, build and maintain the embankment, sightseeing construction of the river coast, and annual maintenance of the embankments), Management Division (Rivers and coasts management), Assets Division, Accounting Dvision, Personnel Division and Ciril Service Ethics Division.                       

While stepping into the 21st Century, Taiwan Water Agency is committed to move towards two major directions:                                               

"Cultivate the waters and land, so as to sustainably maintain rich and excellent water resources." "Maintain and manage the rivers, so as to preserve and create a naturally diversified water environment."